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To facilitate this study, the author or compiler of the following sheets has before prepared and passed through the press, various editions of a Grammar, Dictionary, and two volumes of Selections, the utility of which is best proved by the uninterrupted public countenance shewn them ; and, for such learners as can obtain the assistance of a fit instructor, these helps might have sufficed.

(p^^ though in Dakhni it is more usually j^l (a/i) ; excepting, however, the vocative, in which it is commonly j (o) ; so, ^j J ^ i^^Ji (jarkon ketaln) to boys ; ^^Ij ^ ^^\j\i^{dana'dn kepas) near the wise; ji U3ij^ (s^^T^y^'"' P^''^^ ^^ mares; ^^^ ^j^i^ {kitabdn men) in books.^ b. J l S or i ^ y, as y in yoke.§ * The Nagari sign may be used for any nasal not initial in a syllable. u5^ (bande) slaves, ^* L5^ l/ ^ ^jjcj of slaves, D. § The Nagari ^ may occasionally be sounded like this and represented by the same Persian or Roman letters. u or 3 — Uj a slight nasal.* J or ^ — ^ V, or w, as v in voice.f 2f or •V — ^ ^, as h in horse, how. L or t or c J or J or c/ or ^ or v-/ or -/ or J or r or u or the Hindustani Language. When thus used it is technically termed - (idiulasatu-l-hina) , § In the Arabic character, however, this letter when secondary in a syllable becomes, together with the preceding vowel, \^ fat ha^ ai ; if Arasr, 1 ; and, if it be mafhul, it is sounded e, as before instanced under the vowels. Words may be divided into Nouns substantive or Adjective, Pro- nouns, Verbs comprising participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc- tions, and Interjections. Nouns substantive may be, in gender, masculine or feminine; in number, singular or plural ; and for case, are frequently liable to in- flection or change in the termination. The gender of nouns is sometimes to be determined from the nature of the beings to which words are applied ; as t^ (mard) man, CL^j^ {aurat) woman : in numerous instances, however, the distinction is conventional, and to be learned by practice in the language only ; yet words terminating in a (a), \ (a),* ^ {an), are generally mascu- line, and those ending in ^j (i), ^^^ (m\ d J {t), ^ (^sh), ^j (ti), will most commonly be found to be feminine. As marked exceptions to the foregoing rule, may be noticed ^l» {jpani) water f ^ ighi) clarified butter, ^J {dahi) curdled milk, ^^ (ji) life, ^y {t\ ^ {sh\ or ^ (») will occur in use as of the mas- cuhne gender.f * Most of the pure Sanskrit and Arabic nouns ending in 1 (a) are feminine, as well as some of the latter tongue terminating in a (a). * The Nagari compound ^ Is occasionally represented by -^, and similarly pronounced. In some Persian words, j though written is scarcely, if at all, sounded ; as in li\^^ (jdma Ji) desire^ Lr)^ (ichusli) pleasant. a., as well as masculines of all other terminations, and all feminines, admit of no inflection before postpositions in the singular ; so, ^ U-lj {raja se) from the prince ; ,jt^ j^ {ghcir men) in the house ; ^ Ij J {dawa se) with medicine ; ^'\ ^ ^j^ (ghori ke age) before the mare. The inflection for the plural is, in proper Hindustani, constantly Li?

16 A Grammar of Masculines in \ (a) which are not hable to change in the nominative plural, some of which are enumerated at paragraph 4.

In the Arabic orthography, moreover, this letter, subsequent to fafha be- comes au ; to zamm, u ; and, when mafhul, it is sounded o, as before noted under the vowels.

Pronounced as w when compounded with some other consonant.

— Numerals, Cardinals Ordinals and Aggregates Numerals, used distributively Fractionals Chapter VII. Some general terms 89 The Elements 90 Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, &c. Vocabulary (continued) — Minerals, Metals, &c Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs Esculent Roots and Vegetables Flowers Fruits Grains, Seeds Food in general for Animals ... 146 Professions, Occupations People of Professions, Trades, &c. Short Stories, in Persian and Nagari characters, with translation and grammatical analysis 46^ PART V. 565 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE PART I. e *• i • A Grammar of 'Persian Alphahet.* Letters uncon- nected.

88 Nouns, Celestials, Infernals 88 Fabulous beings. 93 Things relating to Air 93 Things relating to Water ... 94 Things relating to the surface of the Earth 95 Vlll INDEX. 97 99 109 110 113 115 117 117 120 121 123 127 128 132 139 143 144 144 Morals, — moral and immoral Actions... Alphabets J Orthographical Signs, and Pronunciation. The most common dialects of India, whether that of Hindustan proper, or that of the Dakhan, are often found written in the Persian or Arabic characters, especially by the Musalman population of the country ; by Hindus, however, the Devanagari (a word often con- tracted to Nagari), or characters allied to the Devanagari, are usually adopted : the alphabets and other orthographical signs, therefore, made use of in each of those two systems of writing claim the earliest attention of the learner; and, will in the first place be submitted to his notice.

— Verb Root Infinitive Past Participle 9 13 13 14 15 16 18 18 19 21 23 24 30 30 30 30 Present Participle Past Conjunctive Participle Past Tenses Present Tenses... Auxiliary Verb, conjugation of Intransitive Verb, ^ jo.-^ Go . Country and Country Affairs Society and Government ... 530 Grammatical Terms, with examples of their application 537 Military Words of Command, English and Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman characters 54t Corrections ...